Appendix IV

The Conjugation of the Verb
لە کتێبی:
فەرهەنگی وەهبی و ئەدمۆندز
بەرهەمی:
Taufiq Wahby, C. J. Edmonds
 12 خولەک  703 بینین

Verbs fall into four groups distinguished by the ending of the infinitive: (1) -din, -ḍin, or -tin ; (2) -în ; (3) -an ; (4) -ûn. The principal parts are present stem, past stem, and past participle. The present stem of all verbs is given in the Dictionary. The past stem is found by cutting off the -in or -n of the infinitive. The only two intransitive verbs of group (4), bûn and chûn, have a second, shortened, past stem—bu, chu ; the shortened bu only is used for the auxiliary in the formation of compound tenses. The past participle is formed by adding û to the past stem if it ends in a consonant, and w if it ends in î or a ; in verbs of the fourth group the past stem and the past participle are identical in form.

Specimen paradigms of an intransitive and a transitive verb, each with the present and past stems ending in a consonant, are given below. If either stem ends in a vowel considerations of euphony impose the following minor changes:

  • (а) The i of the inflexions -im, -in, and the i between the past stem and the auxiliary in the compound tenses, disappear, e.g. e-kew-im but e-ṟo-m, kewt-im but peṟî-m, girt-i-bu-m but kêsha-bu-m.
  • (b) The î of the inflexions -î(t) and -în becomes y, e.g. kewt-î(t) but gora-y(t), e-kew-în but e-duwê-yn, kewt-în but bezî-yn (or bezî-n).
  • (c) When the inflexion -ê(t) would follow a present stem ending in ê the ê is pronounced and written only once, e.g. e-geṟê(t) not e-geṟê-ê(t).
  • (d) Where the ending -aye occurs w is inserted after u and û, y is inserted after î, and the a is elided after a, e.g. bi-buw-aye, bi-man-diṟûw-aye, bi-perîy-aye, bi-geṟa-’ye.
  • (e) The 2nd person singular, imperative has no inflexion, e.g. bi-gir-e but bi-ṟo.

Paradigm

IntransitiveTransitive
Infinitivekew-tingir-tin
Present stemkewgir
Past stemkewtgirt
Past participlekewt-ûgirt-û

 

indicative intransitivesubjunctive intransitiveindicative transitivesubjunctive transitive
Present
1e-kew-imbi-kew-ime-gir-imbi-gir-im
2e-kew-î(t)bi-kew-î(t)e-gir-î(t)bi-gir-î(t)
3e-kew-ê(t)bi-kew-ê(t)e-gir-ê(t)bi-gir-ê(t)
4e-kew-înbi-kew-îne-gir-înbi-gir-în
5e-kew-inbi-kew-ine-gir-inbi-gir-in
6e-kew-inbi-kew-ine-gir-inbi-gir-in
Preterite
1kewt-imgirt-im
2kewt-î(t)girt-it
3kewtgirt-y
4kewt-îngirt-man
5kewt-ingirt-tan
6kewt-ingirt-tan
Imperfect
1e-kewt-imbi-kewt-im-ayee-m-girtbi-m-girt-aye
2e-kewt-î(t)bi-kewt-ît-ayee-ṭ-girtbi-t-girt-aye
3e-kewtbi-kewt-ayee-y-girtbi-y-girt-aye
4e-kewt-înbi-kewt-în-ayee-man-girtbi-man-girt-aye
5e-kewt-inbi-kewt-in-ayee-tan-girtbi-tan-girt-aye
6e-kewt-inbi-kewt-in-ayee-yan-girtbi-yan-girt-aye
Perfect
1kewt-û-mkewt-i-b-imgirt-û-m-egirt-i-b-êt-im
2kewt-û-y(t)kewt-i-b-î(t)girt-û-t-egirt-i-b-êt-it
3kewt-uw-ekewt-i-b-ê(t)girt-û-y-egirt-i-b-êt-y
4kewt-û-ynkewt-i-b-ingirt-û-man-egirt-i-b-êt-man
5kewt-û-nkewt-i-b-ingirt-û-tan-egirt-i-b-êt-tan
6kewt-û-nkewt-i-b-ingirt-û-yan-egirt-i-b-êt-yan
Pluperfect
1kewt-i-bu-mkewt-i-bu-m-ayegirt-i-bu-mgirt-i-bu-m-aye
2kewt-i-bu-y(t)kewt-i-bu-yt-ayegirt-i-bu-tgirt-i-bu-t-aye
3kewt-i-bukewt-i-buw-ayegirt-i-bu-ygirt-i-bu-y-aye
4kewt-i-bu-ynkewt-i-bu-yn-ayegirt-i-bu-mangirt-i-bu-man-aye
5kewt-i-bu-nkewt-i-bu-n-ayegirt-i-bu-tangirt-i-bu-tan-aye
6kewt-i-bu-nkewt-i-bu-n-ayegirt-i-bu-yangirt-i-bu-yan-aye

 

Imperative
intransitivetransitive
Singularbi-kew-ebi-gir-e
Pluralbi-kew-inbi-gir-in